Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 2 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The paper presents analytical relationships based on the theory of Green’s functions. The relationships refer to instantaneous and continuous as well as point and ring heat sources which are discussed. The relationship relating to continuous ring source is the basis for modelling and designing of spiral ground heat exchangers. Heat transfer in the infinite and semi-infinite body was considered. In the latter case, the image method was discussed. Using the results of measurements regarding heat transfer in the ground with a heat exchanger in the form of a single coil installed, a comparison of calculated ground temperatures with measured values was presented.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Larwa
Krzysztof Kupiec
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The work presents the process of drying wood biomass after pre-treatment involving either debarking or crushing. The biomass used for research came from a robinia species wood. The material was dried in free-convection, at the drying medium temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ◦C, respectively. Pre- treatment proved to have a significant impact on the drying rate, including the time required to reach moisture content of 10%, essential to start further treatment of biomass for power industry purposes. It was found that debarked samples of robinia lost water more quickly than the crushed ones. Samples that did not undergo pre-treatment took the longest time to dry.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Głowacki
Małgorzata Jaros
Mariusz Sojak
Weronika Tulej
Andrzej Bryś
Monika Witek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper presents an experimental study on Cochineal Red A dye adsorptive removal by yeast. Batch equilibrium and kinetic tests were conducted in constant temperature of 30 ◦C for the dye’s initial concentration range of 0.02–0.50 g/L (pH = 3 and 10) and 0.02–0.35 g/L (pH = 7:6). The equilibrium was reached after 105–120 min. Yeast demonstrated the adsorption capacity of 10.16 mg/g for acidic environment (pH = 3) and slightly lower values (8.13 mg/g and 8.38 mg/g respectively) for neutral (pH = 7:6) and alkaline environment (pH = 10). The experimental equilibrium results were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Toth isotherm models. Most of them (Freundlich model being the exception) were proven sufficient for the experimental data correlation. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second order model fits better the experimental data than the pseudo-first- order model. Results achieved from intra-particle diffusion model indicate that powdered yeast are a nonporous adsorbent. The percentage of solution discoloration reached a maximum value of 75% at pH = 3 for an initial dye concentration of 0.02 g/L.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Martyna Borysiak
Elżbieta Gabruś
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Poly(glycerol succinate) – PGSu – is one of glycerol polyesters which has focused nowadays the interest of scientists developing new biomaterials. Probably the polyester could be used as a drug carrier or as a cell scaffold in tissue engineering. Due to its potential use in medicine, it is extremely important to develop a synthesis and then optimize it to obtain a material with desired properties. In this work one flask two-step polycondensation of glycerol and succinic anhydride to PGSu is presented. Synthesis was optimized with the simplex method and also described using a second-degree equation with two variables (temperature and time) to better find the optimum conditions. PGSu was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, degree of esterification was determined, and also molecular weight was calculated for each experiment using Carothers equation. A new synthesis route was developed and optimized. Temperature and time influence on molecular weight and esterification degree of obtained polyester are presented. Based on experiments conducted in this work, it was possible to obtain poly(glycerol succinate) with molecular weight of 6.7 kDa.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Michał Wrzecionek
Joanna Howis
Paweł Ruśkowski
Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper aims to show the effect of activation method of tyre pyrolysis char (TPC) on adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. The TPC was produced from end-of-life-tyres (ELT) feedstock in a pilot plant at 773 K. Activation was accomplished using two classical methods: physical activation withCO2 and chemical activation withKOH. The two produced adsorbents had pores ranging from micro- to macropores. Distinct differences in the BET surface areas and pore volumes between the adsorbents were displayed showing better performance of the chemically activated adsorbent for adsorption of BPA from water.

The results of the kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of BPA followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Langmuir–Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm equations were used for description of the adsorption data. The Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm model best fits the experimental data for the BPA adsorption on both adsorbents. The Langmuir–Freundlich monolayer adsorption capacity, qmLF, obtained for the CO2-activated tyre pyrolysis char (AP-CO2) and KOH-activated tyre pyrolysis char (AP-KOH) were 0.473 and 0.969 mmol g��1, respectively.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Kuśmierek
Andrzej Świątkowski
Tomasz Kotkowski
Robert Cherbański
Eugeniusz Molga
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Every change in the bottle geometry aswell as every change of physical and rheological properties poses a risk of excessive gas entrainment during a filling process. To maintain satisfactory filling efficiency there is a need to optimise this process with respect to all adverse phenomena which affect the fluid flow, such as spluttering on the bottom, air caverns formation and air entrainment with incoming liquid. This paper comprises numerical simulations of two filling methods. The first method involves dosing with a pipe placed over the free liquid surface of a fully filled bottle. The second method covers filling with a pipe located near the bottom. Moreover, the influence of rheological properties and surface tension values is considered. The comprehensive analysis of amount of entrained air represented by air volume fraction in dispensed liquid let the authors define the influence of filling speed on the mechanism and amount of entrapped air.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Monika Jałowiecka
Łukasz Makowski

Editorial office

Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland



Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa


Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles.

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations


The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

8. Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address:

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more