Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2020 | vol. 20 | Ahead of print |

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Abstract

The results of the Charpy impact test of AE-type magnesium alloys produced by the high pressure die casting method are presented. Three alloys with different weight fractions of rare earth elements (RE; e.g. 1, 3 and 5 wt%) and the same mass fraction of aluminium (5 wt%) were prepared. The casts were fabricated using a typical cold chamber high pressure die casting machine with a 3.8 MN locking force. Microstructural analyses were performed by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The impact strength (IS) was determined using a Charpy V hammer with an impact energy equal to 150 J. The microstructure of the experimental alloys consisted of an -Mg solid solution and Al11RE3, Al10Ce2Mn7 and Al2RE intermetallic compounds. The obtained results show the significant influence of the rare earth elements to aluminium ratio on the impact strength of the investigated materials. Lower the RE/Al ratio in the chemical composition of the alloy results in a higher impact strength of the material.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Braszczyńska-Malik
M.A. Malik
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Abstract

Plates of AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with a thickness of 3.5 mm were butt-welded using a laser power of 2000 W and helium as the shielding gas. The effect of the welding speed on the weld cross-sectional geometry and porosity was determined by microscopic analysis. It was found that to avoid the formation of macropores, welding should be carried out at a speed of 3.4 m/min or higher. Non-equilibrium solidification of the laser-melted metal causes fragmentation of the weld microstructure. Joints that were welded at optimal laser processing parameters were subjected to structural observations using optical and scanning microscopy and to mechanical tests. The mechanical properties were determined through Vickers hardness measurements in the joint cross-section and through tensile testing. The results indicate that the hardness in the fusion zone was about 20 HV (30%) higher than that of the base material. The weld proved to be a mechanically stable part of the joint; all the tensile-tested specimens fractured outside the fusion zone.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dziadoń
E. Musiał
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Abstract

The paper presents the effect of tin on the crystallization process, microstructure and hardness of cast iron with compacted (vermicular) graphite. The compacted graphite was obtained with the use of magnesium treatment process (Inmold technology). The lack of significant effect of tin on the temperature of the eutectic transformation has been demonstrated. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the eutectoid transformation temperature with increasing tin concentration has been shown. It was demonstrated that tin narrows the temperature range of the austenite transformation. The effect of tin on the microstructure of cast iron with compacted graphite considering casting wall thickness has been investigated and described. The carbide-forming effect of tin in thin-walled (3 mm) castings has been demonstrated. The nomograms describing the microstructure of compacted graphite iron versus tin concentration have been developed. The effect of tin on the hardness of cast iron was given.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Gumienny
B. Kurowska
P. Fabian
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Abstract

The paper presents research of metallic glass based on a Mg72Zn24Ca4 alloy. Metallic glass was prepared using induction melting and further injection on a spinning copper wheel. The X-ray diffractometer and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to investigate the phase transformation of the amorphous ribbon. The heat released in the crystallization process, during isothermal annealing, based on the differential scanning calorimeter investigation, was determined to be 166.18 Jg-1. The effect of isothermal annealing temperature on the kinetics of the amorphous alloy crystallization process using differential scanning calorimeter was investigated. For this purpose, two isothermal annealing temperatures were selected. The incubation time decreases as the temperature of the isothermal annealing increases from 300 to 252 seconds. The same relationship is visible in the case of duration of the phase transformation, which also decreases as the temperature of the isothermal annealing increases from 360 to 228 seconds. The obtained results show a significant influence of isothermal annealing temperature on the degree of phase transformation.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Lelito
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on the production and application of sintered copper matrix composite reinforced with titaniumcopper intermetallic phases. Cu- Ti composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The starting materials for obtaining the sintered composites were commercial powders of copper and titanium. Experiments were carried out on specimens containing 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % of titanium by weight. Finished powders mixtures containing appropriate quantities of titanium were subjected to single pressing with a hydraulic press at a compaction pressure of 620 MPa. Obtained samples were subjected to sintering process at 880 °C in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia. The sintering time was 6 hours. The introduction of titanium into copper resulted in the formation of many particles containing intermetallic phases. The obtained sinters were subjected to hardness, density and electrical conductivity measurements. Observations of the microstructure on metallographic specimens made from the sintered compacts were also performed using a optical microscope. An analysis of the chemical composition (EDS) of the obtained composites was also performed using a scanning electron microscope. Microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that after 6 hours of sintering at 880°C intermetallic compounds: TiCu, TiCu2, TiCu4, Ti2Cu3, Ti3Cu4 were formed. The hardness increased in comparison with a sample made of pure copper whereas density and electrical conductivity decreased. The aim of this work was to fabricate copper matrix composites reinforced with titanium particles containing copper- titanium intermetallic phases using powder metallurgy technology and determine the influence of the titanium particles on the properties of the sintered compacts and, finally, analyse the potentials application for friction materials or electric motors brushes.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kargul
M. Konieczny
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Abstract

The present work studies the tribological properties of new hybrid material composed from high porosity open cell aluminum alloy (AlSi10Mg) skeleton and B83 babbitt infiltrated into it. The porous skeleton is obtained by replication method applying salt (NaCl) as space holder. The reinforcing phase of the skeleton consists of Al2O3 particles. The skeleton contains Al2O3 particles as reinforcement. The microstructure of the obtained materials is observed and the tribological properties are determined. A comparison between tribological properties of nominally nonporous aluminum alloy, high porosity open cell skeleton, babbitt alloy and the hybrid material is presented. It is concluded that new hybrid material has high wear resistivity and is a promising material for sliding bearings and other machine elements with high wear resistivity.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kolev
L. Drenchev
L. Stanev
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Abstract

The study presented in this paper concerned the possibility to apply a heat treatment process to ductile cast-iron thin-walled castings in order to remove excessive quantities of pearlite and eutectic cementite precipitates and thus meet the customer’s requirements. After determining the rates of heating a casting up to and cooling down from 900°C feasible in the used production heat treatment furnace (vh = 300°C/h and vc = 200°C/h, respectively), dilatometric tests were carried out to evaluate temperatures Tgr, TAc1start, TAc1end, TAr1start, and TAr1end. The newly acquired knowledge was the base on which conditions for a single-step ferritizing heat treatment securing disintegration of pearlite were developed as well as those of a two-step ferritization process guaranteeing complete disintegration of cementite and arriving at the required ferrite and pearlite content. A purely ferritic matrix and hardness of 119 HB was secured by the treatment scheme: 920°C for 2 hours / vc = 60°C/h / 720°C for 4 hours. A matrix containing 20–45% of pearlite and hardness of 180–182 HB was obtained by applying: 920°C for 2 hours or 4 hours / vc = 200°C/h to 650°C / ambient air.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mróz
A.W. Orłowicz
M. Tupaj
B. Kupiec
M. Kawiński
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Abstract

This paper presents a new stand for studying the linear shrinkage kinetics of foundry alloys. The stand is equipped with a laser displacement sensor. Thanks to this arrangement, the measurement is of a contactless nature. This solution allows for the elimination of errors which occur in measurements made using intermediary elements (steel rods). The supposition of the expansion (shrinkage) of the sample and the expansion of the heated rod lead to the distortion of the image of the actual dimensional changes of the studied sample. A series of studies of foundry alloys conducted using the new stand allowed a new image of shrinkage kinetics to be obtained, in particular regarding cast iron. The authors introduce in the study methodology a real-time measurement of two linked quantities; shrinkage (the displacement of the free end of the sample) and temperature in the surface layer of the sample casting. This generates not only a classic image of shrinkage (S) understood as S = f (t), but also the view S = f (T). The latter correlation, developed based on results obtained using the contactless method, provide a new, so far poorly known image of the course of shrinkage in foundry alloys, especially cast iron with graphite in the structure. The study made use of hypo- and hypereutectic cast iron in order to generate an image of the differences which occur in the kinetics of shrinkage (as well as in pre-shrinkage expansion - expansion occurs during solidification).

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Zych
T. Snopkiewicz
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Abstract

This article proposes these of vibratory machining to Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy as finishing treatment. Titanium alloy was used in the aerospace industry, military, metallurgical, automotive and medical processes, extreme sports and other. The three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experiment examined the influence of machining time of vibratory machining, the type of mass finishing media used and the initial state of the surface layer on the mass loss, geometric structure of the surface, micro hardness and the optimal process parameters were determined. Considerations were given the surfaces after milling, after cutting with a band saw and after the sanding process. The experiment used three types of mass finishing media: polyester, porcelain and metal. Duration of vibratory machining treatment was assumed to be 20, 40, 60 minutes. The form profiles before and after vibratory machining were determined with the Talysurf CCI Lite - Taylor Hobson optical profiler. Future tests should concern research to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of geometrical structure of the surface change is unnoticeable.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Bańkowski
S. Spadło
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Abstract

Article presents results of laser overlaying welding of metal powder Inconel 625. Laser metal deposition by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) is modern manufacturing process for low scale production series. High alloy materials such as Inconel 625 nickel based super alloy have high thermal resistant and good mechanical properties, nevertheless it's hard to machining. Plastic forming of high alloy materials such as Inconel 625 are difficult. Due to high strength characteristic performing components made from Inconel alloy are complex, selective melting of metallic powder using laser beam are alternative method for Inconel tooling. Paper present research of additive deposition of spatial structure made from Inconel 625 metallic powder with CO2 laser and integrated powder feeder. Microstructure analysis as well as strength characteristic in normal condition and at elevated temperature was performed. Possibility of using LENS technology for manufacturing components dedicated for work in high temperature conditions are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Danielewski
B. Antoszewski
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Abstract

This article presents a sequential model of the heating-remelting-cooling of steel samples based on the finite element method (FEM) and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The numerical implementation of the developed solution was completed as part of the original DEFFEM 3D package, being developed for over ten years, and is a dedicated tool to aid physical simulations performed with modern Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulators. Using the developed DEFFEM 3D software to aid physical simulations allows the number of costly tests to be minimized, and additional process information to be obtained, e.g. achieved local cooling rates at any point in the sample tested volume, or characteristics of temperature changes. The study was complemented by examples of simulation and experimental test results, indicating that the adopted model assumptions were correct. The developed solution is the basis for the development of DEFFEM 3D software aimed at developing a comprehensive numerical model allows the simulation of deformation of steel in semi solid state.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hojny
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Abstract

The fluidity is the term to determine the materials ability to fill the mold cavity properly. Fluidity is complex property with many variables. Up to this date, there is no methodology for defining the fluidity in a semisolid material state. Submitted paper deals with the proposal of a new method designed for aluminium alloy fluidity evaluation in semi-solid state trough the design of the layered construction die. Die will be primary used for fluidity tests of semi-solid squeeze casted aluminium alloy and to observe the pressing force flow by mentioned casting technology. The modularity consists of possibility to change each die segment. In the experiment the die design was evaluated by simulation in ProCAST 11.5 and by production of experimental castings. The die was made by laser cutting technology from construction steel S355JR. Experimental material was aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0.3. The temperature of the semisolid state was chosen to achieve 35% of solid phase. The result of next study should be a selected parameters observation and their effect on the fluidity of aluminium alloy in semi-solid state. This will be very important step to determine the optimal conditions to achieve a castings with certain wall thickness produced by the method of semi-solid squeeze casting.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Martinec
R. Pastirčák
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Abstract

The paper discusses the effect of upsetting ratio on distribution of the microhardness in longitudinal sections of hydroformed axisymmetric elements made from P265TR1 steel. The experimental research of hydroforming was carried out at a special stand which included a press with tooling and a hydraulic feeding system of oil. The measurements of microhardness were taken with a MATSUZAWA MMT-X3 Vickers hardness tester at a load of 100 g. The samples used in the tests were prepared from tube segments with a thin-wall ratio of 0.045. In the experiment, steel components were formed at upsetting coefficients of 0.07 and 0.09. For an established course of pressure and upsetting force, a series of steel components with exact representation of the die-cavity was formed. The paper provides a comparison of the microhardness distributions in three zones of longitudinal sections of axisymmetric elements at different degrees of material deformation. The greatest values of microhardness occurred in the area of cap for components at an upsetting coefficient 0.09.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Miłek
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Abstract

With the aid of eutectic modification treatment, the precipitation of coarse lamellar eutectic silicon can be suspended during the solidification of aluminum-silicon alloys, thereby the formation of fine-grained, fibrous eutectic Si can be promoted by the addition of small amounts of modifying elements, such as Sr, to the liquid alloy. The effectiveness of this technique is, however, highly dependent on many technological factors, and the degree of modification can be lowered during the various stages of melt preparation due to the oxidation of the Sr-content of the melt. During our research, we investigated the effect of rotary degassing melt treatments coupled with the addition of three different fluxes on the degree of modification of an Al-Si-Mg-Cu casting alloy. It was also studied, that whether additional Sr alloying made before and during the melt treatments can compensate the Sr fading with time. The degree of eutectic modification was characterized by thermal analysis (TA) and the microscopic investigation of TA specimens. It was found, that by using one of the three fluxes, and by adding Sr master alloy rods before the melt treatments, better modification levels could be achieved. It was also found that the measurement of Sr-concentration by optical emission spectroscopy alone cannot be used for controlling the level of eutectic modification.

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Authors and Affiliations

F. Vincze
M. Tokár
G. Fegyverneki
G. Gyarmati
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Abstract

Heat treatment processes, due to qualitative requirements for the cast machinery components and restrictions on energy consumption resulting on the one hand from environmental concerns, and on the other hand from a requirements coming from minimization of manufacturing costs, are resulting in searching after a technologies enabling obtainment of satisfactory results, in form of improved mechanical properties mainly, while minimizing (limiting) parameters of successive operations of the heat treatment. Heat treatment of the T6 type presented in this paper consists in operations of heating of investigated alloys to suitably selected temperature (range of this temperature was evaluated on the base of the ATD method), holding at such temperature for a short time, and next rapid cooling in water (20 oC) followed by artificial ageing, could be such technology in term s of above mentioned understanding of this issue. Performed T6 heat treatment with limited parameters of solutioning operation resulted in visible increase in tensile strength Rm of AlSi7Mg, AlSi7Cu3Mg and AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloys.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Pezda

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