Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2020 | vol. 69 | No 4 |

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The Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM) is an electrical machine in which the useful electromagnetic torque is produced due to rotor saliency. Its high power- and torque-to-mass ratio and very good efficiency make it a cheap and simple alternative for permanent magnet or induction motors, e.g. in electromobility applications. However, because of magnetic nonlinearities, the rotational speed and torque control of a SynRM is a nontrivial task. In the paper, a control algorithm based on a Hamiltonian mathematical model is presented. The model is formulated using measurement results, obtained by the drive controller. An algorithm is tested in the drive system consisting of a SynRM with the classical rotor and a fast prototyping card. The drive dynamic response in transient states is very good, but the proposed algorithm does not ensure the best efficiency after steady state angular velocity is achieved.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Burlikowski
Paweł Kielan
Zygmunt Kowalik
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Low-power consumption and long-distance transmission are two problems that have to be solved by the application of broadband power line communication for the automatic meter reading system. To reduce the power consumption of the communication module, based on the analysis of the composition of the power consumption, some methods are proposed. From the communication chip level and the module circuit level, the design scheme of low-power consumption is given. To solve the problem of transmission distance, a frequency band of 2.44 MHz~5.6 MHz is used as the main working frequency band. The communication module supports multiple frequency bands. Using this feature, the optimal frequency band is adaptively selected for communication and automatic switching, which further improve the transmission distance. Field application shows that the above methods effectively decrease the power consumption of the communication module and extend the transmission distance.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xia Chen
Ling Liu
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The paper deals with hardware solution of a fully digital dead-time generator. The circuit is applicable to the H-bridges based on any type of semiconductor switching devices including SiC, IGBT, Si-MOSFET and up-to-date GaN HEMTs. The generation of dead-times is ensured by commercially available silicon delay lines. High temperature stability is obtained by self-compensation of propagation delay of logic elements thanks to the symmetry of design topology. The circuit can be set-up to generate dead-times in the range from 10 ns to 500 ns. Longer dead-times are also available by simple cascading of the silicon delay lines. The key motivation for development of the circuit was unavailability of ready to use integrated solutions on the market. Moreover, contrary to the other solutions the proposed circuit is immune to prospective oscillations of an input PWM signal. The paper brings a detailed analysis of the circuit principle, results of the verification of a sample solution and an example of practical application as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jiri Svarny
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Power big data contains a lot of information related to equipment fault. The analysis and processing of power big data can realize fault diagnosis. This study mainly analyzed the application of association rules in power big data processing. Firstly, the association rules and the Apriori algorithm were introduced. Then, aiming at the shortage of the Apriori algorithm, an IM-Apriori algorithm was designed, and a simulation experiment was carried out. The results showed that the IM-Apriori algorithm had a significant advantage over the Apriori algorithm in the running time. When the number of transactions was 100 000, the running of the IM-Apriori algorithm was 38.42% faster than that of the Apriori algorithm. The IM-Apriori algorithm was little affected by the value of supportmin. Compared with the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), the IM-Apriori algorithm had better accuracy. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the IM-Apriori algorithm in fault diagnosis, and it can be further promoted and applied in power grid equipment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jianguo Qian
Bingquan Zhu
Ying Li
Zhengchai Shi
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Large-signal input characteristics of three DC–DC converter types: buck, boost and flyback working in the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), obtained by precise large signal PSpice simulations, calculations based on averaged models and measurements are presented. The parasitic resistances of the converter components are included in the simulations. The specific features of the input characteristics in theDCMand the differences between the continuous conduction mode (CCM) and DCM are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Janke
Maciej Bączek
Jarosław Kraśniewski
Marcin Walczak
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The presence of an open-circuit fault subjects a three-phase induction motor to severely unbalanced voltages that may damage the stator windings consecutively causing total shutdown of systems. Unplanned downtime is very costly. Therefore, fault diagnosis is essential for making a predictive plan for maintenance and saving the required time and cost. This paper presents a model-based diagnosis technique for diagnosing an open-circuit fault in any phase of a three-phase induction motor. The proposed strategy requires only current signals from the faulty machine to compare them with the healthy currents from an induction motor model. Then the errors of comparison are used as an objective function for a genetic algorithm that estimates the parameters of a healthy model, which they employed to identify and localize the fault. The simulation results illustrate the behaviours of basic parameters (stator and rotor resistances, self-inductances, and mutual inductance) and the number of stator winding turn parameters with respect to the location of an open-circuit fault. The results confirm that the number of stator winding turns are the useful parameters and can be utilized as an identifier for an open-circuit fault. The originality of this work is in extracting fault diagnosis features from the variations of the number of stator winding turns.

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Authors and Affiliations

Raya A.K. Aswad
Bassim M.H. Jassim
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Controlling and reducing the radiation emitted by various systems helps the board designer improve systems’ performance. One proposed way to achieve these goals is to use an algorithm to control the radiation applied to systems. According to the executive structure of the algorithm and considering the nature of the existing signals in several components, the separation of the signal components is on the agenda of the algorithm. In fact, the goal is to create an intuitive view of the multi-component signals around the systems that enter the systems from different angles and have a detrimental effect on their performance. Using signal processing methods, we will be able to break down the signal into different components and simulate each component separately. To prevent high computational repetitions and increase simulation time in signal component analysis, by reducing the components, we reduce the number of mesh cells in the software and, using linear approximation, determine the exact position of the radiation signal applied to systems and thus the best linear relationship. The signal entry path is used to apply the rules required for prediction design.

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Authors and Affiliations

Milad Daneshvar
Nasser Parhizgar
Homayoon Oraizi
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In order to realize constant current and constant voltage charging for batteries by inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) technology, a single-switch CL/LCL circuit is designed. The single-switch CL/LCL circuit is composed of a CL/LCL compensation network and single-switch inverter. The proposed circuit is compared with the traditional constant current and constant voltage circuit in the structure. The operating process of the single-switch CL/LCL circuit and the principle to realize a zero-voltage switch (ZVS) are analysed in detail in this paper. The voltage gain and current gain of the circuit are cal- culated, which demonstrates that the circuit is able to suppress higher harmonics strongly. By using Fourier decomposition, the voltage on the primary-side compensation capaci- tor can be obtained. After constructing the equivalent mutual inductance model of the circuit, the formulas and parameters are deduced and calculated. Finally, an experiment platform is built to verify the proposed circuit can realize constant current and constant voltage.

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Authors and Affiliations

Guangzong Zhang
Chunfang Wang
Jianfen Zheng
Houji Li
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The polarized electromagnetic waves have significant impact on the performance of adaptive antenna arrays. In this paper we investigate the effect of polarized desired and undesired signals on the performance of electronically steered beam adaptive antenna arrays. To achieve this goal, we built an analytical signal model for the adaptive array, in order to analyze, and compare the effect of polarized signals on the output SINRs (signal to interference plus noise ratios) of single-dipole, and cross-dipole adaptive antenna arrays. Based on a proof-of-concept experiment, and on MATLAB simulation results, it will be shown that cross-dipole adaptive antenna arrays exhibit better performance in comparison with single-dipole adaptive antenna arrays in presence of randomly polarized signals. However, single-dipole arrays show better performance under certain operating conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Amin H. Al Ka'bi
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The multi-phase permanent-magnet machines with a fractional-slot concentrated-winding (FSCW) are a suitable choice for certain purposes like aircraft, marine, and electric vehicles, because of the fault tolerance and high power density capability. The paper aims to design, optimize and prototype a five-phase fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface-mounted permanent-magnet motor. To optimize the designed multi-phase motor a multi-objective optimization technique based on the genetic algorithm method is applied. The machine design objectives are to maximize torque density of the motor and maximize efficiency then to determine the best choice of the designed machine parameters. Then, the two-dimensional Finite Element Method (2D-FEM) is employed to verify the performance of the optimized machine. Finally, the optimized machine is prototyped. The paper found that the results of the prototyped machine validate the results of theatrical analyses of the machine and accurate consideration of the parameters improved the acting of the machine.

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Authors and Affiliations

Amir Nekoubin
Jafar Soltani
Milad Dowlatshah
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To improve the power quality of a multi-pulse rectifier, a zigzag 18-pulse uncontrolled rectifier with an auxiliary circuit at the DC side is proposed. When the grid-side currents are sinusoidal waves, the required DC side injection currents to be compensated can be obtained by analyzing the AC-DC side relationship of diode bridge rectifiers. Then the 6 compensation currents generated by an active auxiliary circuit are injected into the DC side to eliminate the grid-side harmonics of the rectifier. The simulation results verifying the correctness of the theoretical analysis show that the proposed rectifier can mitigate the harmonic content, as the total harmonic distortion of the grid-side current is about 1.45%. In addition, the single-phase inverter used in the active auxiliary circuit has the characters of simple circuit structure and easy controllability.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jiongde Liu
Xiaoqiang Chen
Ying Wang
Tao Chen
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From the perspective of a virtual power plant (VPP) with electric vehicles (EVs), a self-scheduling strategy considering the response time margin (RTM) and state of charge margin (SOCM) is proposed. Firstly, considering the response state of the state of charge (SOC) and charge-discharge state of EVs, a VPP based response capacity determination model of EVs is established. Then, RTM and SOCM indexes are introduced on the basis of the power system scheduling target and the EV users’ traveling demands. The RTM and SOCM indices are calculated and then are used to generate a priority sequence of responsive EVs for the VPP. In the process of the scheduling period and rolling iteration, the scheduling schemes of the EVs in the VPP for multiple time periods are determined. Finally, the VPP self-scheduling strategy is validated by taking an VPP containing three kinds of EV users as an example. Simulation results show that with the proposed strategy, the VPP is able to respond to the scheduling power from the power system, while ensuring the traveling demands of the EV users at the same time.

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Authors and Affiliations

Fengshun Jiao
Yongsheng Deng
Duo Li
Bo Wei
Chengyan Yue
Meng Cheng
Yapeng Zhang
Jiarui Zhang
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The paper aims at the higher reactive power management complexity caused by the access of distributed power, and the problem such as large data exchange capacity, low accuracy of reactive power distribution, a slow convergence rate, and so on, may appear when the controlled objects are large. This paper proposes a reactive power and voltage control management strategy based on virtual reactance cloud control. The coupling between active power and reactive power in the system is effectively eliminated through the virtual reactance. At the same time, huge amounts of data are treated to parallel processing by using the cloud computing model parallel distributed processing, realize the uncertainty transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative value. The power distribution matrix is formed according to graph theory, and the accurate allocation of reactive power is realized by applying the cloud control model. Finally, the validity and rationality of this method are verified by testing a practical node system through simulation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wei Min Zhang
Yan Xia Zhang
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With the rapid advancement of digital processors, filters have been commonly implemented using microcomputers. In this study, a low-cost and compact Arduino Uno development board was used to realize digital lead and lag compensators. Arduino boards are very affordable. Consequently, they were investigated to see if they were capable of preserving the frequency response of continuous-time compensators. The experiments required a set of equipment including a function generator, an Arduino Uno development board, a PC-based oscilloscope, and a laptop. The signal frequency was varied from 0 to 500 Hz. Two discretization methods were employed, namely bilinear transformation and matched pole-zero mapping. The results showed that an Arduino Uno board can be utilized to implement lead and lag compensators to some extent. The discrete-time compensator preserved the capability of filtering out certain frequencies. The change in DC gain was negligible, however, there was a significant difference in the cut-off frequency and transient slope. For both discretization methods, the frequency responses at high frequency experienced a rippling profile.

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Authors and Affiliations

Gunawan Dewantoro
Irwin Shauma Rizky
Budihardja Murtianta
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This paper presents an improved Virtual Flux-based Direct Power Control (VF-DPC) applied for a three-phase pulse width modulation rectifier. The proposed control approach incorporates an enhanced Virtual Flux estimator made up of a cascade second-degree low-pass filter. This latter guarantees the attenuation of the highest harmonics. The introduced control concept presented in this paper has interesting features such as reducing the current harmonics distortion. In other words, it ensures that the input current drawn from the power supply is perfectly sinusoidal whatever the state of the network voltage. The proposed method also allows to maintain the DC side capacitor voltage at the required level and assure that the input current is in phase with the respective voltage to satisfy the unity power factor function. The results obtained from the numerical simulation have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method for disturbed grid voltage and system parameters variation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zakaria El Zaïr Laggoun
Hocine Benalla
Khalil Nebti
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The paper presents research on the development of a line-start synchronous reluctance motor (LSSynRM) and line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor (LSPMSM) based on components of a mass-produced three-phase low-power squirrel cage induction motor (IM). The aim of the research was to modify the squirrel cage rotor structure for which the best functional parameters characterizing the steady state of the LSSynRM and LSPMSM were obtained, while meeting the additional requirements for asynchronous start-up. Field-circuit models of the LSSynRM and LSPMSM have been developed in the professional finite element method (FEM) package, MagNet, and applied in the design and optimization calculations of the considered machines. Experimental testing on the designed LSSynRM and LSPMSM prototypes were carried out. The obtained results were compared with the performance of the reference IM. The conclusions resulting from the comparative analysis of these three motors are given and proposals for further work are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wieslaw Lyskawinski

Editorial office

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Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.


The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.


Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.



The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,


Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.



Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
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Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

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Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard b>

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

[9], accessed April 2010.



Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.


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Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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